We are neither affiliated with the author of this essay nor responsible for its content. This paper revolves around developmental psychologist Jean Piaget and his work. While swaying from the personal to the professional sides of the Swiss psychologist, the research touches on key influences that inspired young Piaget to become such a driven and well respected psychologist. However, the most extensive part of this paper is the explanation of his cognitive development theory and how it evolved.
Based on intensive observations of a small sample of infants, including his own children, as well as extensive interviews with older children, the Swiss psychologist proposed a theory in which developmental change is qualitative rather than merely quantitative.
In other words, an older child thinks differently than an infant, and a teenager thinks differently than an older child, and an adult thinks differently than all of them. The start of each stage is marked by a qualitative change from what preceded it. So what changes from stage to stage?
Piaget saw the mind as made up of cognitive structures he called schemas, which are mental images or generalizations based on our experience of the world. We use schemas both to organize past experience and to provide a framework for organizing and understanding future experiences.
The newborn infant has very little experience, thus very few schemas. The infant immediately begins gaining experience with the outside world, however, which causes the schemas to begin changing almost at once. The sucking schema will rapidly change to accommodate the fact that a range of objects may be sucked, but not all sucking will produce food, for example.
Two processes guide the development of ever more complex schemas: Assimilation is the process by which new information is placed into existing schemas. Real cognitive change, however, comes from the challenges to our existing schemas that the world is always ready to provide.
This process is known as accommodation. Piaget believed that during this stage, infants can form schemas only about objects and actions that are actually present. If an object is not currently in sight or within grasp, the child cannot think about it.
For the infant, out of sight is out of mind. The sensorimotor period ends when the child is able to form mental representations of objects despite being unable to see them, an ability Piaget called object permanence. From about age two to around age seven, children are in the preoperational stage, in which they can think in images and symbols, able to represent something with something else.
Unsurprisingly, this is the stage in which language use and pretend play become common. Piaget believed that children at this stage are highly egocentric, meaning they are unable to appreciate the perspectives of others or understand that there is any way to see a situation other than their own.
He based this belief on a task in which the child walks around a three-dimensional model of three mountains and is then asked what someone usually a doll would see from a particular position. Preoperational children typically select the view that corresponds to their own current perspective, rather than the correct one.
In the classic test of conservation, children watch as water or juice from two identical glasses is poured into two new glasses, one tall and thin and the other short and wide. When asked if one glass contains more than the other, preoperational children typically choose the taller glass.
Children at this stage do not understand the mental operations of reversibility if they poured the water back into the original glasses, they would clearly hold the same amount again and complementarity one glass is taller, but the other makes up for that difference by being widerthus their thinking is preoperational.
In the concrete operations stage, ages seven to about twelve, the child becomes able to understand and apply logical principles, thus conservation is no longer a challenge, and the ability to apply such logic to number and amount makes mathematics learning possible.
A large body of research on infant memory, for example, indicates that children are capable of using mental representations at much younger ages than Piaget believed.
When the children do the pouring in the liquid conservation task, rather than watching an adult do it, preoperational children frequently answer correctly.
Preoperational children are also less egocentric than Piaget imagined, as when the three-mountain task is redesigned a bit to more closely resemble a game children might actually play. A doll dressed as a policeman is then placed in the model, as is a doll dressed as a thief. Children are asked to take the perspective of the policeman and decide whether he can see, and therefore catch, the thief.
Furthermore, many psychologists question the wisdom of thinking in terms of rigidly bounded stages, rather than recognizing that children reach some concrete-operational milestones before others. It makes more sense, therefore, to think in terms of individual mental abilities developing rather the whole mind changing at once.
If you need a custom essay or research paper on this topic please use our writing services.Read Jean Piaget - Swiss Psychologist free essay and over 88, other research documents. Jean Piaget - Swiss Psychologist.
Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist. “He was born in Neuchatel Switzerland on August 9, ” (3) He was the /5(1). Jean Piaget Essay Words | 7 Pages. Jean Piaget was a major contributor to the world of psychology and sociology that we know today. His works and discoveries still help sociologist determine and figure out ways people in society interact and develop throughout time.
Free Essay: Throughout history, many people have made amazing contributions to the school of psychology. One of these was Jean Piaget and his theories on the. Essays, Term Papers, Book Reports, Research Papers on Psychology. Free Papers and Essays on Jean Piaget.
We provide free model essays on Psychology, Jean Piaget reports, and term paper samples related to Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Theory The Cognitive Development Theory was first identified by Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget was born on August 9, in Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
Piaget became well known by the many papers he published throughout his late teen years. - Jean Piaget's Four Stages of Learning in Cognitive Development Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who did work on the development of intelligence in children.
His studies have had a major impact on the fields of psychology and education.