Chinese Characters Learn Chinese 4 0 Chinese characters have over 4, years, evolved over thousands of years, now 3, characters commonly used. And Chinese writing is like drawing. Chinese characters have also had a major influence on the writing system of other languages, such as Japanese, Vietnam, and Korean.
The Chinese writing system is non-alphabetic. It applies a specific character to write each meaningful syllable or each nonmeaningful syllabic that is part of a polysyllabic word. History It is not known when Chinese writing originated, but it apparently began to develop in the early 2nd millennium bc.
The earliest known inscriptions, each of which contains between 10 and 60 characters incised on pieces of bone and tortoiseshell that were used for oracular divination, date from the Shang or Yin dynasty 18th—12th century bcbut, by then it was already a highly developed system, essentially similar to its present form.
By bc the script included some 2, to 3, characters, most of which can be read to this day. By the end of the Zhou dynasty the dazhuan had degenerated to some extent. The script was fixed in its present form during the Qin period — bc.
The earliest graphs were schematic pictures of what they represented; the graph for man resembled a standing figure, that for woman depicted a kneeling figure. It is now recognized that the system represents the Chinese language by means of a logographic script.
Each graph or character corresponds to one meaningful unit of the language, not directly to a unit of thought.
Although it was possible to make up simple signs to represent common objects, many words were not readily picturable. To represent such words the phonographic principle was adopted.
A graph that pictured some object was borrowed to write a different word that happened to sound similar. With this invention the Chinese approached the form of writing invented by the Sumerians.
However, because of the enormous number of Chinese words that sound the same, to have carried through the phonographic principle would have resulted in a writing system in which many of the words could be read in more than one way.
That is, a written character would be extremely ambiguous. The solution to the problem of character ambiguityadopted about bc during the reign of the first Qin emperor, Shihuangdiwas to distinguish two words having the same sound and represented by the same graph by adding another graph to give a clue to the meaning of the particular word intended.
Such complex graphs or characters consist of two parts, one part suggesting the sound, the other part the meaning.
The system was then standardized so as to approach the ideal of one distinctive graph representing each morpheme, or unit of meaning, in the language.
In order to create a handle by means of a wheel to easily rotate their grain winnowers, the Chinese invented the crank handle and applied the centrifugal fan principle in the 2nd century BC.   The crank handle was used in well-windlasses, querns, mills, and many silk making machines. Chinese characters are primarily morphosyllabic, meaning that most Chinese morphemes are monosyllabic and are written with a single character, though in modern Chinese most words are disyllabic and dimorphemic, consisting of two syllables, each of which is a morpheme. In modern Chinese 10% of morphemes only occur as part of a given compound. Chinese characters are symbols that have been developed for the writing of the Chinese characters. Chinese characters have also had a major influence on the writing system of other languages, such as Japanese, Vietnam, and Korean.
The limitation is that a language that has thousands of morphemes would require thousands of characters, and, as the characters are formed from simple lines in various orientations and arrangements, they came to possess great complexity.
Not only did the principle of the script change with time, so too did the form of the graphs. The earliest writing consisted of carved inscriptions. Before the beginning of the Christian Era the script came to be written with brush and ink on paper. The brushwork allowed a great deal of scope for aesthetic considerations.
The relation between the written Chinese language and its oral form is very different from the analogous relation between written and spoken English. A piece of written text read orally is often quite incomprehensible to a listener because of the large number of homophones.
In conversation, literate Chinese speakers frequently draw characters in the air to distinguish between homophones. Written text, on the other hand, is completely unambiguous. In English, by contrast, writing is often thought of as a reflection, albeit imperfect, of speech.
To make the script easier to read, a system of transcribing Chinese into the Roman alphabet was adopted in The system was not intended to replace the logographic script but to indicate the sounds of graphs in dictionaries and to supplement graphs on such things as road signs and posters.
A second reform simplified the characters by reducing the number of strokes used in writing them. Simplification, however, tends to make the characters more similar in appearance; thus they are more easily confused and the value of the reform is limited.
The phonetic element is usually a contracted form of another character with the same pronunciation as that of the word intended. Chinese script, as mentioned above, is logographic; it differs from phonographic writing systems—whose characters or graphs represent units of sound—in using one character or graph to represent a morpheme.
Chinese, like any other language, has thousands of morphemes, and, as one character is used for each morpheme, the writing system has thousands of characters. Two morphemes that sound the same would, in English, have at least some similarity of spelling; in Chinese they are represented by completely different characters.
Yet there is no similarity in the way they are written. The Chinese language has clearly distinguished syllables that are easily recognized in speech and hence easily represented by a sign. These syllables correspond to morphemes; each morpheme is one syllable long.
In English one morpheme is often expressed by two syllables e. In Chinese, with a general correspondence between morpheme and syllable, each morpheme is easily represented by a sign for the corresponding syllable. Moreover, one morpheme in Chinese is more or less equivalent to a word.Writing.
|Chinese and Chinese Characters||According to legend, he had four eyes and four pupils, and that when he invented Chinese characters, the demons cried and the sky rained millet.|
|Chinese writing | lausannecongress2018.com||As I regard chess in East Asia a fascinating field in itself, my paramount interest is to delve into the origins, the history, and the development of chess and chess-like games. Although I will refrain from speculations on the connections between Chinese Chess and the Indian and Persian chess-games, the reader is invited to draw whatever conclusions himself.|
|Legendary beginnings||The database has vocabulary decomposed to part of speech characteristics and semantic characteristics to form inseparable basic semantic points.|
|Showing Results in:||Chinese alcoholic rice wine containers.|
|Proto-writing?||The invention of writing It is virtually certain that writing developed on the basis of earlier existing pictographs and ideographs. True writing is thought to have been invented independently at least twice and perhaps three times in different places and times in human history:|
A. Guisepi. The International History Project, The invention of writing was one of the great advances in civilization. Writing, in fact, helps assure the continuity of civilization, because it carries a tangible record of the human race from generation to generation.
Chinese characters are symbols that have been developed for the writing of the Chinese characters. Chinese characters have also had a major influence on the writing system of other languages, such as Japanese, Vietnam, and Korean.
To represent such words the phonographic principle was adopted. A graph that pictured some object was borrowed to write a different word that happened to sound similar.
With this invention the Chinese approached the form of writing invented by the Sumerians. At this point in history, Japan didn't have its own writing system (which means they probably talked a lot, blah blah blah blah), and although nobody is quite sure when Japan started using the Chinese script, it was probably Chinese immigrants who first started using it and then it caught on from there.
Sometime around AD we know that groups called Fuhito were formed to read Classical Chinese, which . A general digital semantic database for mechanical language translation is provided. The database has vocabulary decomposed to part of speech characteristics and semantic characteristics to form inseparable basic semantic points.
The vocabulary is regularly ordered according to classes of the semantic characteristic, part of speech characteristic, background and grammatical relation. INTRODUCTION: Pre-Alphabetic Writing • Chinese writing is based on ideograms – hard to learn at first, so it takes Chinese students much longer to learn how to write more important than either of these is the invention of writing itself John Healey, The Early Alphabet,